1990 & 1991 EAST AND WEST COAST DEPLOYMENTS

CV and CVN Activities after CV-43 Decommissioned

Operation Desert Shield (Iraqi occupation of Kuwait commencing 2 August 1990) and

Operation Desert Storm commencing in the early morning hours of 17 January 1991).

(27 April 1990 to 26 April 1992)

Part 1 – (27 April to 1 August 1990)

Part 2 – (2 August to 11 October 1990)

Part 3 – (12 October to 31 December 1990)

Part 4 – (1 January to 26 March 1991)

Part 5 – (27 March to 16 June 1991)

Part 6 – (17 June 1991 to 27 April 1992)

 

 

     “In January 1991, with the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, the Middle East Force was absorbed into U.S. Naval Forces Central Command, the naval component of the U.S. Central Command. Central Command is responsible for all U.S. Military activity in the Middle East and eastern Africa. In the aftermath of the 1990/91 Gulf War, U.S. Naval Forces Central Command ships and those of the coalition partners undertook the largest mine clearing operation since World War II. Nearly 1,300 sophisticated sea mines of various types were swept from the Arabian Gulf, providing the safest passage for naval and merchant ships in decades” (Ref. 359).

 

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) JANUARY, 1 1991 REPORT

 

     “Mission. To support and operate Naval tactical and support aircraft at sea, maintain open sea lanes for maritime traffic, project power both at sea and ashore, and provide a formidable strike option in response to national tasking. Lincoln also serves as a command and control platform, able to direct and support full battle group operations. Wherever it goes, Lincoln serves as a symbol of U.S. resolve to provide a sea-based deterrent to threats of national interest. Command Master Chief -- AVCM James L. Withycombe. Abraham Lincoln is the nation's fifth Nimitz-class aircraft carrier, and the newest in the U.S. arsenal. Built at a cost of over $3 billion, Lincoln is the largest U.S. warship ever constructed. Commissioned November 11, 1989, Lincoln is the second ship of the line named for the sixteenth, and arguably, the greatest president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln is charged with supporting America's tactical air capability and maintaining open sea lanes. As it carries out this mission on the oceans of the world, Lincoln brings a message of peace through strength. Captain James O. Ellis Jr. Commands Lincoln and its officer and crew complement of over 2,600 persons” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

     “On New Year’s Day 1991, Vice President Dan Quayle paid a four-hour visit to USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), to demonstrate national solidarity with the forces deployed in support of Operation Desert Shield and spoke to the sailors in the hangar bay of the ship” (Ref. 549).

 

 

View of the flight deck of USS America (CV-66) during Operation Desert Shield, January 1991, in the Suez Canal. Photo by Matthew Trujillo, ISSN, Ops. Dept. at the time. NS026663. http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/026663.jpg

 

 

An F-14A Tomcat lands aboard USS America (CV-66) during Operation Desert Shield. Photo by Matthew Trujillo, ISSN, Ops. Dept. at the time. NS026664 http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/026664.jpg

 

 

A view of the flight deck of USS America (CV-66) getting ready to start the first flight ops of the war (Operation Desert Storm, January 1991) from the ship. Photo by Matthew Trujillo, ISSN, Ops. Dept. at the time. NS026665.

http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/026665.jpg

 

     USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) reconfigured to embark and operate Grumman F-14D Tomcats, McDonnell Douglas F/A-18C Block 14 Hornets, S-3B Vikings and Sikorsky HH-60 and SH-60F Seahawks. In addition to a number of shore facilities, destroyer tender Samuel Gompers (AD-37) supported the ship during her overhaul. The ship reciprocated by dispatching detachments to support Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm/Desert Sabre, aircraft carriers USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) and Nimitz, Missouri, hospital ship Mercy (T-AH-19), ocean minesweeper Pledge (MSO-492), VA-52 during Red Flag opposition force exercises at Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, Nev., CVWR-30 at NAS Fallon, Nev., Operation Roving Sands 92 at Roswell, N.M., and VA-304 during training at Naval Weapons Center China Lake, California (January 1991). These detachments provided useful training for the crewmembers involved, who honed skills they otherwise could not use during the overhaul. At various times distinguished visitors included Secretary of the Navy Henry L. Garrett, III, VADM Kenneth C. Malley, Commander Naval Sea Systems Command, VADM James F. Dorsey, Jr., Commander Third Fleet and VADM Edwin R. Kohn, Jr., Commander Naval Air Forces Pacific Fleet” (Ref. 375A).

 

     “On 2 January 1991, USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) got underway from Jeddah to return to the Red Sea operating area and conducted a passing-at-sea exercise named Camelot with the Royal Saudi Arabian Navy and Air Force. Together, they trained in surface, sub-surface, and air warfare, in addition to underway replenishment, live firing, and shipping interdiction” (Ref. 549).

 

     “USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) steamed through the Atlantic and into the Mediterranean Sea, making her first Suez Canal transit, en route to the Persian Gulf via the Red Sea, and through the Bab el Mandeb, Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the Gulf of Oman and Strait of Hormuz, entering the war on 9 January 1991 in support of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm” (Ref. 72 & 384).

 

     “USS America (CV-66) transited the Straits of Gibraltar on 9 January 1991 and entered the Mediterranean Sea” (Ref. 1-America & 72).

 

    “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) remained at Naval Air Station, Alameda, California from 1 to 10 January 1991” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

    “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) departed Naval Air Station, Alameda, California on 11 January 1991, for Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS) Carrier Qualifications (CQs), and Independent Steaming Exercise (ISE) in the Southern California (Socal) area of operation (AOO)” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

      “The crew of USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) braced themselves for the prospects of war. The training and practice runs became more intense when on 13 January 1991; word reached the ship that hostilities with Iraq were perceived as inevitable with pre-emptive strikes from Iraq probable. In response to this alert, John F. Kennedy increased her level of preparedness and set material condition zebra main deck and below” (Ref. 549).

 

     “On 15 January 1991, the USS America (CV-66) battle group transited the Suez Canal, America’s 9th Suez Canal transit, and arrived on station in the Red Sea to participate in Operation Desert Storm” (Ref. 1-America & 72).

 

     “On 15 January 1991, the dialogue between the future combatants took an ominous tone. White House Spokesman Marlin Fitzwater warned that military action “could occur at any point after midnight 15 January Eastern Standard Time… Any moment after the 15th is borrowed time.” French Prime Minister Michel Rochard lamented “there is a fatal moment when one must act. This moment has, alas, arrived.” Iraqi Information Minister Latif Nassif Jassim, responding to pleas to withdraw Iraqi forces from Kuwait, dashed hopes for a peaceful resolution to the crisis. “Leave Kuwait?” he asked. “Kuwait is a province of Iraq and beyond discussion.” That same day, on board John F. Kennedy, the crew continued working up for strikes against Iraqi forces in the Red Sea, waiting for Iraq’s answer to the 15 January 1991 deadline” (Ref. 549).

 

     “Saddam Hussein’s forces did not budge. On 16 January 1991, 1650 Eastern Standard Time, a squadron of F-15E fighter-bombers took off from their base in central Saudi Arabia, and began hitting their targets in Kuwait and Iraq before 1900 Eastern Standard Time” (Ref. 549).

 

     “In the early morning hours of 17 January 1991, Operation Desert Shield became Operation Desert Storm” (Ref. 1-Saratoga & 72).

 

     “At 2100 Eastern Standard Time, President George H. W. Bush addressed the nation on 16 January 1991 at 9 p.m. EST and announced that the libration of Kuwait from Iraq, was over and the liberation of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm, had begun with the Commander, 7th Fleet, serving as naval component commander for Central Command, with Operation Desert Shield commencing 2 August 1990 (Iraqi occupation of Kuwait)” (Ref. 549).

 

      “The Navy launched 228 sorties from USS Ranger (CV-61) and USS Midway (CV-41) in the Persian Gulf, from USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) en route to the Gulf, and from USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), USS Saratoga (CV-60), and USS America (CV-66) in the Red Sea. In addition, the Navy launched more than 100 Tomahawk missiles from nine ships in the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf” (Ref. 1-Ranger & 72).

 

     “The three carrier battle group operations in the Red Sea, commanded by Rear Admiral Riley D. Mixson, ComCarGru 2, also settled into a routine. USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67), USS Saratoga (CV-60) and USS America (CV-66) formed the nucleus of the three groups. USS Ranger (CV-61) and USS Midway (CV-41) in the Persian Gulf and USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) en route to the Gulf would form the second three carrier battle group” (Ref. 549).

 

    “Aircraft from USS Saratoga (CV-60) flew against Iraq in the first step to knock out the Arab nation's military power and drive it from conquered Kuwait. CVW-17 aircraft dropped more than four million pounds of ordnance on enemy targets” (Ref. 1-Saratoga & 72).

 

     “On 17 January 1991, 0120 local time, (1720 Eastern Standard Time, 16 January) USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) launched her first strikes on Iraqi, a half-hour after the initial wave by USAF planes. Carrier Wing 3 launched two major strikes of 80 sorties. The mood of the ship had begun with jubilation, then became somber and then anxious as the ship waited for all of her aircraft to return safely. All aircraft were recovered unharmed, the returning aircrew reporting heavy, but ineffective, antiaircraft fire over Baghdad. The strikes had proved successful, prompting one pilot to describe the action thus: “Imagine the Disney World light show, then magnify it 100 times… that’s what it looked like from the sky last night… it was incredible!” (Ref. 549).

 

     “Starting on that first day of strikes, USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) settled into a routine that lasted through the end of the conflict, engaging in a steady but fast-paced regimen of preparing aircraft, launching them, recovering them, repeating the process. All the while, they kept a mixture of hope and faith in the success of their aircrews, and a suspended disbelief in the lack of casualties” (Ref. 549).

 

     “On 17 January 1991, Lt. Cmdr. Michael Scott Speicher, flying an F/A-18C Hornet of VFA-81 aboard USS Saratoga (CV-60) was shot down by an Iraqi surface-to-air missile, the first U.S. casualty of the Gulf War. He was placed in an MIA status the next day” (Ref. 1-Saratoga & 72).

 

     “USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) Intruders launched the first Standoff Land Attack Missiles in combat on 19 January 1991” (Ref. 549).

 

      “Standard procedure called for six-day rotations. Two carriers would launch strike aircraft while the third would operate in an area known as “Gasoline Alley” for two days to replenish munitions, stores, and fuel. Each carrier would be “on the line” for four days conducting either a night or daytime flight operations schedule, then “off duty” for two days. While in “Gasoline Alley,” the carrier under replenishment would also be responsible for AAW, AEW and CTTG alerts” (Ref. 549).

 

     “On 21 January 1991, an F-14 Tomcat of VF-103 aboard USS Saratoga (CV-60) was shot down by a surface-to-air missile. Pilot Lt. Devon Jones and Radar Intercept Officer Lt. Lawrence Slade were reported missing. Lt. Jones was recovered the following day, but Lt. Slade was captured as a prisoner of war” (Ref. 1-Saratoga & 72).

 

    “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) returned to Naval Air Station, Alameda, California on 25 January 1991, conducting Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS) Carrier Qualifications (CQs), and Independent Steaming Exercise (ISE) in the Southern California (Socal) area of operation (AOO) from 11 to 25 January 1991” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

      “Flying on 30 January 1991, all 18 F/A-18s aboard USS Saratoga (CV-60) delivered 100,000 pounds of MK-83 1,000-lb. bombs on Iraqi position in occupied Kuwait. This was the largest amount of bomb tonnage carried on a single mission” (Ref. 1-Saratoga & 72).

     “During Operation Desert Storm in 1991, Carriers operated under operational control of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command where it remained following the war. The Commander, Seventh Fleet served as naval component commander for Central Command. Since the Gulf War, NAVCENT fulfilled the roles of both a naval component command and as the fleet command. Ships from the East and West Coasts comprised the fleet, but it operated without a traditionally understood structure or number” (Ref. 313 & 313A).

     “On 6 February 1991, an F-14A Tomcat from VF-1, off USS Ranger (CV-61), piloted by Lt. Stuart Broce, with Cmdr. Ron McElraft as Radar Intercept Officer, downed an Iraqi MI-8 Hip helicopter with an AIM-9M Sidewinder missile” (Ref. 1-Ranger & 72).

 

     “Detached from the Red Sea Battle Force on 7 February 1991, USS America (CVA-66) proceeded to the Persian Gulf. USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and USS Saratoga (CV-60) changed their procedure to six days on line and two days off duty. In addition to launching strikes, the on-cycle carrier flew combat air patrol aircraft and stood CTTG, while the off-cycle carrier stood AAW, AEW, CTTG, and ASUW alerts when both carriers were on the line. When one of the two carriers was under replenishment, the other carrier would assume responsibility for all alerts. The carrier’s duty cycles of morning (A.M.) or evening (P.M.) were specified as 0000-1500 or 1200-0300 to accommodate returning strike recovery times. Each carrier launched two large strikes with times on target around nine hours apart to allow for deck respot and weapons loading. CAP cycle times were A.M. or P.M. for 12-hour periods” (Ref. 549).

 

     Persian Gulf, arm of the Arabian Sea, 90,000 sq mi (233,100 sq km), between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran, extends c.600 mi (970 km) from the Shatt al Arab delta to the Strait of Hormuz, which links it with the Gulf of Oman” (Ref. 549).

 

      “The P.M. carrier was also responsible for S-3 pickup of the next day’s air tasking order from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. They also had to relay the message to the A.M. carrier. The air tasking order was retrieved in hard copy form because of the incompatibility between U.S. Air Force and Navy communications systems. The Air Force housed the theater air warfare commander, so the Navy had to play by their rules. While the P.M. carrier’s S-3 picked up the daily orders, the A.M. carrier’s S-3 delivered Scud missile TARPS to Riyadh by 0700 local time” (Ref. 549).

 

     “Captain Kent Walker Ewing, NAVCAD assumed command during a change of command ceremony aboard USS America (CV-66) on 8 February 1991, relieving Captain John J. (Maz) Mazach, NAVCAD, 19th Commanding Officer, serving from 14 October 1989 to 8 February 1991” (Ref. 324).

 

     “While deployed, USS America (CV-66)/CVW-1 team distinguished themselves, on 15 February 1991, as the only carrier and air wing to fight in both the Red Sea and Arabian/Persian Gulf after America departed the Red Sea, steaming through the Bab el Mandeb Strait and Gulf of Aden, en route to the Persian Gulf via the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Strait of Hormuz into the Persian Gulf” (Ref. 1-America & 72).

 

    “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) remained at Naval Air Station, Alameda, California from 5 January to 19 February 1991” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

     “On 20 February 1991, USS America (CV-66) VS-32 became the first S-3 squadron to engage, bomb and destroy a hostile vessel — an Iraqi gunboat” (Ref. 1-America & 72).

 

    “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) departed Naval Air Station, Alameda, California on 20 February 1991, for Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS) Carrier Qualifications (CQs), and Independent Steaming Exercise (ISE) in the Southern California (Social) area of operation (AOO)” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

     “During Operation Desert Storm, on 20 February 1991, John Bridget, a Greenshirt, was sucked into an A-6E's engine while preparing the jet for take-off while USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) was operating in the Arabian/Persian Gulf. Although the plane was already on the catapult and the engines were running, Bridget was able to crawl out of the engine but collapsed on the flight deck. His only injuries were some scratches. He survived because of his protective suit, which destroyed and stopped the engine. After the accident John Bridget left the Navy. There are two videos of the accident available:

 

Clip #1 and Clip #2” (Ref. 84A).

 

     “On 23 February 1991, aircraft from USS America (CV-66) destroyed a Silkworm (anti-ship) missile battery after Iraq unsuccessfully fired a missile at USS Missouri (BB-63).

 

     “USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) continued to launch air strikes right throughout the week that led up to the 24 February 1991 launch of the ground assault on Kuwait. The war had not reached as quick a conclusion as USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) crew would have liked. The carrier was scheduled to return-from-deployment on 15 February 1991. That same day, Saddam Hussein issued a statement concerning Iraq’s stated intention to withdraw from Kuwait, prompting cheer and jubilation from the sailors. Their euphoria quickly dissipated once the conditions of Iraq’s withdrawal became evident. John F. Kennedy’s return-from-deployment date was cancelled. The general tone of the crew, one observer wrote later, was one of a desire to “hurry up and get it over with”” (Ref. 549).

 

    “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) returned to Naval Air Station, Alameda, California on 25 January 1991, conducting Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS) Carrier Qualifications (CQs), and Independent Steaming Exercise (ISE) in the Southern California (Socal) area of operation (AOO) from 20 to 27 February 1991” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

     “On 27 February 1991, President George H. W. Bush declared a cease-fire in Iraq, and ordered all U.S. forces to stand down. With the presidential cease-fire in place, USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) transited the Suez Canal for the fourth time in seven months and began its journey home” (Ref. 72 & 76).

 

      “USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) participated in Operation Desert Storm from 9 January to 28 February 1991, steaming from the Persian Gulf  through the Strait of Hormuz into the Gulf of Oman to the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and through the Bab el Mandeb by westerly and northerly courses to the Red Sea, on her 2nd Red Sea voyage, making her second Suez Canal transit to the Mediterranean Sea operating with the 6th Fleet, before steaming through the Atlantic on her way home” (Ref. 72 & 384).

 

     “When the crew of USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) learned that Operation Desert Storm combat operations had ceased on 28 February 1991, they were quite subdued. John F. Kennedy had launched a total of 114 strikes during the 42 days of conflict. 2895 combat sorties were flown for a total of 11,263.4 flight hours. The men were too tired to celebrate. They simply wanted to go home. Many of John F. Kennedy felt understandably dismayed when they learned that they would be making one more stop before heading home at Hurghada, Egypt. Before embarking on her passage, the carrier set material condition Yoke on the main decks and below, instead of Zebra, for the first time since 13 January 1991” (Ref. 549).

 

     “USS America (CV-66) departed the Arabian/Persian Gulf on 4 March 1991, having launched over 3,000 combat sorties, significantly contributing to the liberation of Kuwait, steaming through the Strait of Hormuz to the Arabian Sea, via the Gulf of Oman to the Gulf of Aden, Bab el Mandeb Strait and Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal” (Ref. 1-America & 72).

 

     “On 4 March 1991, USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) became the first-ever American warship to conduct a port visit at Hurghada, Egypt (Ref. 549).

 

      “USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) weighed anchor off Hurghada, Egypt at midnight on 10 March 1991 and headed to Port Suez (Ref. 549).

 

      “USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) dropped anchor late in the afternoon on 11 March 1991 at Port Suez to prepare for the fourth Canal transit of the deployment. “The crew’s impatience to get home,” one observer in the ship later wrote, “was not helped by the necessity for canceling boating at Hurghada because of high winds and seas” from 5 to 7 March 1991” (Ref. 549).

 

    “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) remained at Naval Air Station, Alameda, California from 28 February to 11 March 1991” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

    “USS Saratoga (CV-60) departed the Gulf on 11 March 1991” (Ref. 1-Saratoga & 72).

 

     “USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) got underway from Port Suez at 0545, 12 March 1991, for her long journey home” (Ref. 549).

 

    “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) departed Naval Air Station, Alameda, California on 12 March 1991, for CVW-11 CQs, Refresher Training (REFTRA) and ATA” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) with CVW-11 (NH)

(12 March to 14 April 1991)

 

     “USS America (CV-66) conducted a port visit to Hurghada, Egypt, making the first port call of the deployment after 78 consecutive days at sea on 16 March 1991” (Ref. 1-America & 72).

 

 

A port bow view of the aircraft carrier USS Ranger (CV-61) as the vessel heads out of San Diego Channel en route to the Pacific Ocean to take part in anti-submarine warfare exercises with USS Ford (FFG-54). The guided missile frigate is astern of Ranger in the channel. Photo is dated 17 March 1991, but on that date Ranger was engaged in operations in support of Operation Desert Storm. U.S. Navy photo by PHAN Rich (DVIC id.: #DNSC9400475). NS075432.

http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/images/54/075432.jpg

 

     “From 16 through 22 March 1991, USS America (CV-66) conducted a port visit to Hurghada, Egypt, making the first port call of the deployment after 78 consecutive days at sea” (Ref. 1-America & 72).

 

     “On 27 March 1991, USS Saratoga (CV-60) with CVW-17 embarked arrived Mayport, Florida, ending her first Arabian/Persian Gulf deployment in support of Operation Desert Shield/Operation Desert Storm, returning home via Gulf of Aden, Red Sea, on her fourth Suez Canal transit, steaming through the Mediterranean Sea, on her 19th Mediterranean Sea deployment, operating with the United States Sixth Fleet (6th Fleet), steaming through the North Atlantic, operating with the U.S. Atlantic Command (USLANTCOM) (Atlantic Fleet) under the direction of the 2nd Fleet to the Mediterranean Sea, operating under the direction of the U.S. Naval Forces Central Command where it remained following the war with Iraq (Operation Desert Storm commencing in the early morning hours of 17 January 1991), with the Commander, 7th Fleet, serving as naval component commander for Central Command, with Operation Desert Shield commencing 2 August 1990 (Iraqi occupation of Kuwait). While being deployed seven months and 21 days, CVW-17 aircraft made 11,700 arrested landings, 12,700 sorties flown, 36,382 miles traveled, departing the Gulf on 11 March 1991. Completed overhaul in 1988, commencing following her 19th Mediterranean Sea deployment operating with the 6th Fleet, in November 1987, when she departed Mayport, Florida, and entered the Norfolk Naval Shipyard for overhaul at a cost of $280 Million; departing Philadelphia Naval Shipyard for Mayport, Florida with much fanfare on 3 February 1983 with her new nickname "Super Sara,” upon conclusion of sea trials on 16 October 1982, conducting sea trials upon completion of the Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) overhaul (24 months - 28 September 1980 to 16 October 1982), arrivng at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard only one month after her return from her 16th Mediterranean Sea deployment; reclassified CV-60 - "Multi-purpose Aircraft Carrier on 30 June 1975; made one Vietnam Combat cruise during the Vietnam Conflict/War and first deployment operating with the 7th Fleet, earning 1 battle stars for service in Vietnam, returning from the South China Sea, via the straits of Malacca, Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea, her second Suez Canal transit steaming through the Gulf of Aden, Red Sea, to and from the Mediterranean Sea 11 April 1972. Her 25th Foreign Water Fleet Deployment (FWFD) (7 August 1990 to 27 March 1991) since her commission 14 April 1956” (Ref. 1-Saratoga & 72).

 

     “On 28 March 1991, USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) with CVW-3 and Rear Admiral Riley D. Mixson, ComCarGru 2 embarked arrived Norfolk, Virginia at 1430 on 28 March 1991, moored at Pier 12, with Captain John P. Gay in command, greeted by a throng bearing balloons, banners, and flags along with 30,000 family members and supporters, her banner baring the same initials of her proud namesake: “Justice For Kuwait,” ending her first Red Sea deployment, on her 13th Mediterranean Sea deployment, operating with the United States Sixth Fleet (6th Fleet), steaming through the North Atlantic, operating with the U.S. Atlantic Command (USLANTCOM) (Atlantic Fleet) under the direction of the 2nd Fleet to the Mediterranean Sea,  participating in National Week ’90 Exercises, and what would turn how to be Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm operating under the direction of the U.S. Naval Forces Central Command where it remained following the war with Iraq (Operation Desert Storm commencing in the early morning hours of 17 January 1991), with the Commander, 7th Fleet, serving as naval component commander for Central Command, with Operation Desert Shield commencing 2 August 1990 (Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, making four Suez Canal transits during the deployment. With the aircraft of CVW-3 recovered (VF-14 and VF-32, VA-46, VA-72, and VA-75, VS-22, VAQ-130, VAW-126 and HS-7) John F. Kennedy stood out for local operations off the Virginia capes, joined by her battle group after conducting war-at-sea defensive evolutions with the 2nd Fleet, hosting a post-exercise conference on 22 August 1990 before beginning the voyage to the Mediterranean Sea, accompanied by Mississippi, sprinted ahead of the rest of the battle group and passed into the Mediterranean Sea on 30 August 1990 where Commander, 6th Fleet, briefers met the ship to provide the battle group deployment schedule – although, as the carrier’s schedule changed before the briefers even left the ship! After conducting war-at-sea defensive evolutions with the 2nd Fleet, John F. Kennedy was joined by her battle group—guided missile cruisers Thomas S. Gates (CG-51), San Jacinto (CG-56), and Mississippi (CGN-40), destroyer Moosbrugger (DD-980), frigate Thomas C. Hart (FF-1092), guided missile frigate Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58), fast combat support ship Seattle, and combat stores ship Sylvania (AFS-2) -- John F. Kennedy hosted a post-exercise conference on 22 August 1990 before beginning the voyage to the Mediterranean Sea. John F. Kennedy, accompanied by Mississippi, sprinted ahead of the rest of the battle group and passed into the Mediterranean Sea on 30 August 1990 where Commander, 6th Fleet, briefers met the ship to provide the battle group deployment schedule – although, as the carrier’s chronicler later noted wryly, the schedule changed before the briefers even left the ship! Consequently, John F. Kennedy anchored in Augusta Bay on 1 September, for turnover with USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69). Rear Admiral Mixson, ComCarGru 2, assumed command of TF 60, and John F. Kennedy stood into the central Mediterranean Sea to join Dwight D. Eisenhower for National Week ’90 exercises. On 4 September 1990, John F. Kennedy took over as the Mediterranean Sea carrier. On 10 September 1990, John F. Kennedy anchored off Alexandria. After a three-day port visit at Alexandria, arriving on 10 September 1990, John F. Kennedy got underway, transiting the Suez Canal on 14 September 1990 and stood into the Red Sea becoming the flagship for the commander of the Red Sea Battle Force in support of Operation Desert Shield. Before her first strikes were launched, Rear Admiral Riley D. Mixson, ComCarGru 2, Commander Red Sea Force, announced over John F. Kennedy 1MC the launch schedule that would commence the following day in less than ten hours. He congratulated the ship for being able to carry out the President’s orders and participate in air strikes on Iraq, strikes that John F. Kennedy had trained for. “You have trained hard. You are ready,” Rear Admiral Mixson concluded, “Now let’s execute. For the aircrews, we are all very, very proud of you. I wish you good hunting and God speed. On 15 September 1990, John F. Kennedy joined USS Saratoga (CV-60). The two carriers operated together for the next two days before John F. Kennedy assumed the watch in the Red Sea while Saratoga moved to the Mediterranean Sea. Two weeks of operations in the Red Sea passed without any major happenings on John F. Kennedy. Then, on 26 September 1990, an SH-3H Sea King from HS-7 (side number 610) splashed several miles from the ship after it lost power in one engine. The crew and passengers were rescued without injury by helo and motor whaleboat crews. Throughout the rest of September 1990, John F. Kennedy conducted operations in the Red Sea while at general quarters. Throughout October 1990, John F. Kennedy conducted operations in the Red Sea while at general quarters.  Aircraft launched nearly every day and conducted training sorties over Saudi Arabia. On 27 October, John F. Kennedy held a turnover with Saratoga and headed back to the Suez Canal en route to the Mediterranean Sea on her second transit of the deployment. On 30 October 1990, John F. Kennedy conducted a night transit to Gaeta, anchoring on 1 November 1990. While anchored in Gaeta, John F. Kennedy hosted the 6th Fleet change of command ceremony with Secretary of the Navy Lawrence Garrett, III, as the guest speaker. Immediately following the ceremony and reception, the carrier weighed anchor and steamed south. Due to the situation in the Persian Gulf, the cancellation of John F. Kennedy scheduled call at Naples, and the requirement for her to be within 72 hours steaming time of the Red Sea, John F. Kennedy visited Gezelbache, Turkey instead from 7 to 14 November 1990. John F. Kennedy got underway from Gezelbache, Turkey for Antalya, Turkey. En route, a National Broadcasting Company (NBC) news team recorded interviews for “The Today Show.” The ship arrived at Antalya on 19 November 1990, just in time for Thanksgiving. John F. Kennedy sailed from Antalya on 28 November 1990. On 29 November 1990, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 678 authorizing “member states cooperating with the Government of Kuwait to use all necessary means to uphold and implement the Security Council Resolution 660,” calling for an immediate and unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait, “and all subsequent relevant Resolutions and to restore international peace and security in the area.” The deadline for Iraq would be 15 January 1991. On 30 November 1990, John F. Kennedy sailed for the Suez Canal. On 2 December 1990, just after midnight, John F. Kennedy made her third Suez Canal transit of her deployment. John F. Kennedy entered the Red Sea on 3 December 1990 and began turnover duties with Saratoga. The two carriers operated together and conducted simulated strikes on targets in western Saudi Arabia. Royal Air Force Vice Marshall William J. Wratten and Wing Commander Mick Richardson visited John F. Kennedy on 4 December 1990 from Tobuk, Saudi Arabia, to discuss the conduct of an air war with Iraq. Captain John P. Gay relieved Captain Herbert A. Browne as commanding officer of John F. Kennedy on 7 December 1990. Rear Admiral Mixson, Commander, TG 150.5, on hand for the ceremony, presented Captain Browne with the Legion of Merit. This change of command ceremony proved unique in John F. Kennedy’s history as it was held while the ship was underway in the Red Sea. This was the first change of command ceremony conducted in the khaki working uniform with ball caps. Media representatives from the Joint Information Bureau in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, flew out to John F. Kennedy on 13 December 1990 to discuss morale and holiday plans with the sailors. Representatives from BBC-TV, the Associated Press, United Press International, WBZ (Boston) Radio, Independent Radio News, U.S. News and World Report, and Reuters stayed on board for two days. After conducting several small-scale exercises, John F. Kennedy entered port in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on the morning of 29 December 1990, thus becoming the first U.S. aircraft carrier to visit Saudi Arabia. The Saudis hospitably set up a bank of 100 telephones in a warehouse across the pier from where the carrier lay moored, from which the men could call their loved ones. On New Year’s Day 1991, Vice President Dan Quayle paid a four-hour visit to John F. Kennedy, to demonstrate national solidarity with the forces deployed in support of Operation Desert Shield and spoke to the sailors in the hangar bay of the ship. On 2 January 1991, John F. Kennedy got underway from Jeddah to return to the Red Sea operating area and conducted a passing-at-sea exercise named Camelot with the Royal Saudi Arabian Navy and Air Force. Together, they trained in surface, sub-surface, and air warfare, in addition to underway replenishment, live firing, and shipping interdiction. The crew of John F. Kennedy braced themselves for the prospects of war. The training and practice runs became more intense when on 13 January 1991; word reached the ship that hostilities with Iraq were perceived as inevitable with pre-emptive strikes from Iraq probable. In response to this alert, John F. Kennedy increased her level of preparedness and set material condition zebra main deck and below. On 15 January 1991, the dialogue between the future combatants took an ominous tone. White House Spokesman Marlin Fitzwater warned that military action “could occur at any point after midnight 15 January Eastern Standard Time… Any moment after the 15th is borrowed time.” French Prime Minister Michel Rochard lamented “there is a fatal moment when one must act. This moment has, alas, arrived.” Iraqi Information Minister Latif Nassif Jassim, responding to pleas to withdraw Iraqi forces from Kuwait, dashed hopes for a peaceful resolution to the crisis. “Leave Kuwait?” he asked. “Kuwait is a province of Iraq and beyond discussion.” That same day, on board John F. Kennedy, the crew continued working up for strikes against Iraqi forces in the Red Sea, waiting for Iraq’s answer to the 15 January 1991 deadline. Saddam Hussein’s forces did not budge. On 16 January 1991, 1650 Eastern Standard Time, a squadron of F-15E fighter-bombers took off from their base in central Saudi Arabia, and began hitting their targets in Kuwait and Iraq before 1900 Eastern Standard Time. At 2100 Eastern Standard Time, President George H. W. Bush addressed the nation on 16 January 1991 at 9 p.m. EST and announced that the libration of Kuwait from Iraq, was over and the liberation of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm, had begun with the Commander, 7th Fleet, serving as naval component commander for Central Command, with Operation Desert Shield commencing 2 August 1990 (Iraqi occupation of Kuwait). The three carrier battle group operations in the Red Sea, commanded by Rear Admiral Riley D. Mixson, ComCarGru 2, also settled into a routine. John F. Kennedy, Saratoga and USS America (CV-66) formed the nucleus of the three groups. USS Ranger (CV-61) and USS Midway (CV-41) in the Persian Gulf and USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) en route to the Gulf would form the second three carrier battle group. During Operation Desert Storm in 1991, Carriers operated under operational control of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command where it remained following the war. The Commander, Seventh Fleet served as naval component commander for Central Command. Since the Gulf War, NAVCENT fulfilled the roles of both a naval component command and as the fleet command. Ships from the East and West Coasts comprised the fleet, but it operated without a traditionally understood structure or number. In the early morning hours of 17 January 1991, Operation Desert Shield became Operation Desert Storm. On 17 January 1991, 0120 local time, (1720 Eastern Standard Time, 16 January) John F. Kennedy her first strikes on Iraqi, a half-hour after the initial wave by USAF planes. Carrier Wing 3 launched two major strikes of 80 sorties. The mood of the ship had begun with jubilation, then became somber and then anxious as the ship waited for all of her aircraft to return safely. All aircraft were recovered unharmed, the returning aircrew reporting heavy, but ineffective, antiaircraft fire over Baghdad. The strikes had proved successful, prompting one pilot to describe the action thus: “Imagine the Disney World light show, then magnify it 100 times… that’s what it looked like from the sky last night… it was incredible! The Navy launched 228 sorties from Ranger and Midway in the Persian Gulf, from Theodore Roosevelt en route to the Gulf, and from John F. Kennedy, Saratoga, and America in the Red Sea. In addition, the Navy launched more than 100 Tomahawk missiles from nine ships in the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf. Starting on that first day of strikes, John F. Kennedy settled into a routine that lasted through the end of the conflict, engaging in a steady but fast-paced regimen of preparing aircraft, launching them, recovering them, repeating the process. All the while, they kept a mixture of hope and faith in the success of their aircrews, and a suspended disbelief in the lack of casualties. John F. Kennedy Intruders launched the first Standoff Land Attack Missiles in combat on 19 January 1991. Standard procedure called for six-day rotations. Two carriers would launch strike aircraft while the third would operate in an area known as “Gasoline Alley” for two days to replenish munitions, stores, and fuel. Each carrier would be “on the line” for four days conducting either a night or daytime flight operations schedule, then “off duty” for two days. While in “Gasoline Alley,” the carrier under replenishment would also be responsible for AAW, AEW and CTTG alerts. Detached from the Red Sea Battle Force on 7 February 1991, USS America (CVA-66) proceeded to the Persian Gulf. John F. Kennedy and Saratoga changed their procedure to six days on line and two days off duty. In addition to launching strikes, the on-cycle carrier flew combat air patrol aircraft and stood CTTG, while the off-cycle carrier stood AAW, AEW, CTTG, and ASUW alerts when both carriers were on the line. When one of the two carriers was under replenishment, the other carrier would assume responsibility for all alerts. The carrier’s duty cycles of morning (A.M.) or evening (P.M.) were specified as 0000-1500 or 1200-0300 to accommodate returning strike recovery times. Each carrier launched two large strikes with times on target around nine hours apart to allow for deck respot and weapons loading. CAP cycle times were A.M. or P.M. for 12-hour periods. Persian Gulf, arm of the Arabian Sea, 90,000 sq mi (233,100 sq km), between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran, extends c.600 mi (970 km) from the Shatt al Arab delta to the Strait of Hormuz, which links it with the Gulf of Oman. The P.M. carrier was also responsible for S-3 pickup of the next day’s air tasking order from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. They also had to relay the message to the A.M. carrier. The air tasking order was retrieved in hard copy form because of the incompatibility between U.S. Air Force and Navy communications systems. The Air Force housed the theater air warfare commander, so the Navy had to play by their rules. While the P.M. carrier’s S-3 picked up the daily orders, the A.M. carrier’s S-3 delivered Scud missile TARPS to Riyadh by 0700 local time. John F. Kennedy continued to launch air strikes right throughout the week that led up to the 24 February launch of the ground assault on Kuwait. The war had not reached as quick a conclusion as John F. Kennedy crew would have liked. The carrier was scheduled to return-from-deployment on 15 February 1991. That same day, Saddam Hussein issued a statement concerning Iraq’s stated intention to withdraw from Kuwait, prompting cheer and jubilation from the sailors. Their euphoria quickly dissipated once the conditions of Iraq’s withdrawal became evident. John F. Kennedy’s return-from-deployment date was cancelled. The general tone of the crew, one observer wrote later, was one of a desire to “hurry up and get it over with.” On 27 February 1991, President George H. W. Bush declared a cease-fire in Iraq, and ordered all U.S. forces to stand down. When the crew of John F. Kennedy learned that Operation Desert Storm combat operations had ceased on 28 February 1991, they were quite subdued. John F. Kennedy had launched a total of 114 strikes during the 42 days of conflict. 2895 combat sorties were flown for a total of 11,263.4 flight hours. The men were too tired to celebrate. They simply wanted to go home. Many of John F. Kennedy felt understandably dismayed when they learned that they would be making one more stop before heading home at Hurghada, Egypt. Before embarking on her passage, the carrier set material condition Yoke on the main decks and below, instead of Zebra, for the first time since 13 January 1991. On 4 March 1991, John F. Kennedy became the first-ever American warship to conduct a port visit at Hurghada, Egypt. John F. Kennedy weighed anchor off Hurghada, Egypt at midnight on 10 March 1991 and headed to Port Suez. John F. Kennedy dropped anchor late in the afternoon on 11 March 1991 at Port Suez to prepare for the fourth Canal transit of the deployment. “The crew’s impatience to get home,” one observer in the ship later wrote, “was not helped by the necessity for canceling boating at Hurghada because of high winds and seas” from 5 to 7 March 1991. John F. Kennedy got underway from Port Suez at 0545, 12 March 1991, for her long journey home” (Ref. 549). Her 17th Foreign Water Fleet Deployment (FWFD) (15 August 1990 to 28 March 1991) since she was commissioned 7 September 1968” (Ref. 1- Kennedy, 72, 76, 380 & 549).

 

     “USS America (CV-66) transited the Suez Canal northward, on her 10th Suez Canal transit, on 3 April 1991, returning to the Mediterranean Sea and the Straits of Gibraltar to enter the Atlantic Ocean on her way home” (Ref. 1-America & 72).

 

    Operation Provide Comfort was a military operation by the United States, starting in 1990, to defend Kurds fleeing their homes in northern Iraq in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War and was formed on 6 April 1991 and deployed to Incirlik Air Base, Turkey, to conduct humanitarian operations in northern Iraq. Maj Gen James L. Jamerson, the USAFE deputy chief of staff for operations, commanded the effort. After British and French cargo aircraft arrived the next day, he redesignated the organization as a Combined Task Force. The task force dropped its first supplies to Kurdish refugees on 7 April. The result of President Bush’s order and UN resolution 688, culminated in a coalition of 13 nations with material contributions from 30 countries working under the command and control of the Coalition Task Force. Although many nations ultimately contributed to the operation, the primary countries involved were the US, the United Kingdom, France, and Turkey” (Ref. 679).

 

      “USS America (CV-66) transited the Straits of Gibraltar on 8 April 1991 and entered the Atlantic Ocean on her way home” (Ref. 1-America & 72).

 

     “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) returned to Naval Air Station, Alameda, California on 14 April 1991, conducting CVW-11 CQs, Refresher Training (REFTRA) and ATA, from 12 March to 14 April 1991. Completed ATA with over 350 sorties in a two and a half day period. CVW-11 Squadrons: VF-114, F-14A; VF-213, F-14A; VFA-22, FA-18C / NFA-18C; VFA-94, FA-18C / NFA-18C; VA-95, A-6E / KA-6D; VAW-117, E-2C; HS-6, SH-3H / HH-60A; VAQ-135, EA-6B and VS-29, S-3B” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

     “On 16 April 1991, the President of the US, authorized by UN resolution 688, expanded Operation Provide Comfort to include multinational forces with the additional mission of establishing temporary refuge camps in northern Iraq. This unit was first labeled "Express Care." On 17 April, when it had become apparent that a ground presence in northern Iraq was necessary, Lt Gen John M. Shalikashvili, US Army, replaced General Jamerson as commander” (Ref. 679).

 

     “A No-Fly Zone was established by the U.S., the U.K. and France north of the 36th parallel. This was enforced by American and British aircraft. Also included in this effort was the delivery of humanitarian relief and military protection of the Kurds by a small American ground force based in Turkey” (Ref. 453).

 

      “On 18 April 1991, USS America (CV-66) with CVW-1 embarked arrived NOB, Norfolk, Virginia, with Captain Kent Walker Ewing, NAVCAD, as Commanding Officer, assuming command during a change of command ceremony aboard 8 February 1991, relieving Captain John J. (Maz) Mazach, NAVCAD while on deployment, ending her 14th Mediterranean Sea deployment, operating with the United States Sixth Fleet (6th Fleet), steaming through the North Atlantic, operating with the U.S. Atlantic Command (USLANTCOM) (Atlantic Fleet) under the direction of the 2nd Fleet to the Mediterranean Sea and upon return from the Med, ending her first Red Sea deployment in support of Operation Desert Shield, on her first Arabian/Persian Gulf deployment in support of 1st Operation Desert Storm, commencing in the early morning hours of 17 January 1991, with Operation Desert Shield commencing 2 August 1990 (Iraqi occupation of Kuwait), operating under the direction of the U.S. Naval Forces Central Command with the Commander, 7th Fleet, serving as naval component commander for Central Command. America transited the Straits of Gibraltar on 9 January 1991 and entered the Mediterranean Sea. On 15 January 1991, the America battle group transited the Suez Canal, America’s 9th Suez Canal transit, and arrived on station in the Red Sea to participate in Operation Desert Storm. In the early morning hours of 17 January 1991, Operation Desert Shield became Operation Desert Storm. On 6 February 1991, an F-14A Tomcat from VF-1, off USS Ranger (CV-61), piloted by Lt. Stuart Broce, with Cmdr. Ron McElraft as Radar Intercept Officer, downed an Iraqi MI-8 Hip helicopter with an AIM-9M Sidewinder missile. Captain Kent Walker Ewing, NAVCAD assumed command during a change of command ceremony aboard on 8 February 1991, relieving Captain John J. (Maz) Mazach, NAVCAD, 19th Commanding Officer, serving from 14 October 1989 to 8 February 1991. During Desert Storm in 1991, Carriers operated under operational control of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command where it remained following the war. The Commander, Seventh Fleet served as naval component commander for Central Command. Since the Gulf War, NAVCENT fulfilled the roles of both a naval component command and as the fleet command. Ships from the East and West Coasts comprised the fleet, but it operated without a traditionally understood structure or number. While deployed, America/CVW-1 team distinguished themselves, on 15 February 1991, as the only carrier and air wing to fight in both the Red Sea and Arabian/Persian Gulf after America departed the Red Sea, steaming through the Bab el Mandeb Strait and Gulf of Aden, en route to the Persian Gulf via the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and Strait of Hormuz into the Persian Gulf. On 20 February 1991, America VS-32 became the first S-3 squadron to engage, bomb and destroy a hostile vessel — an Iraqi gunboat. On 23 February 1991, aircraft from America destroyed a Silkworm (anti-ship) missile battery after Iraq unsuccessfully fired a missile at USS Missouri (BB-63). America departed the Arabian/Persian Gulf on 4 March 1991, having launched over 3,000 combat sorties, significantly contributing to the liberation of Kuwait, steaming through the Strait of Hormuz to the Arabian Sea, via the Gulf of Oman to the Gulf of Aden, Bab el Mandeb Strait and Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal. From 16 through 22 March 1991, America conducted a port visit to Hurghada, Egypt, making the first port call of the deployment after 78 consecutive days at sea. America transited the Suez Canal northward, on her 10th Suez Canal transit, on 3 April 1991, returning to the Mediterranean Sea and the Straits of Gibraltar to enter the Atlantic Ocean on her way . America transited the Straits of Gibraltar on 8 April 1991 and entered the Atlantic Ocean on her way home. Squadrons: VF-102, F-14A; VF-33, F-14A; VFA-82, FA-18C; VFA-86, FA-18C; VA-85, A-6E / KA-6D; VAW-123, E-2C; HS-11, SH-3H; VAQ-137, EA-6B and VS-32, S-3B. Ports visited not reported. Reclassified CV-66 - "Multi-purpose Aircraft Carrier" on 30 June 1975 while at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, entering Norfolk Naval Shipyard on 27 November 1974, upon return from her North Sea deployment on 12 October 1974; making three Vietnam Combat cruises during the Vietnam Conflict/War operating with the 7th Fleet (receiving five battle stars). Her 25th Foreign Water Fleet Deployment (FWFD) since her commission at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Virginia on 23 January 1965, with Captain Lawrence Heyworth, Jr., in command  (28 December 1990 to 18 April 1991)” (Ref. 1-America, 72 & 76, 324 & 824).

 

 28/12/90 to 18/04/91

AWARD OR CITATION

 AWARD DATES

  EAST COAST

Navy Unit Commendation (NU) Navy Unit Commendation

17/01/91 to 07/02/91 – 3rd Award

14th Mediterranean Sea deployment

Southwest Asia Service Medal (SA) (x3) Southeast Asia Service Medal

15/01/91 to 03/04/91

same

Ref. - 24

 

     “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) remained at Naval Air Station, Alameda, California from 15 to 28 April 1991” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

     “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) departed Naval Air Station Alameda, California on 29 April 1991, for ReadiEx 91-2B, a battle group exercise in Californian waters, during which aircraft flew over 460 sorties” (Ref. 378A).

 

     “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) returned to Naval Air Station Alameda, California on 9 May 1991, conducting ReadiEx 91-2B, a battle group exercise in Californian waters, during which aircraft flew over 460 sorties from 29 April to 9 May 1991” (Ref. 378A).

 

     “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) remained at Naval Air Station, Alameda, California from 10 to 11 May 1991, with a Dependent's Day Cruise from the Naval Air Station, Alameda, California on the 11th, returning to port the same day” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

     “USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) remained at Naval Air Station, Alameda, California from 12 to 27 May 1991” (Ref. 378B-1991).

 

 

At Alameda, California the day before USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) 1991 deployment. Photo by AMS3 Rick Rowan. NS027208. http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/027208.jpg

 

 

At Alameda, California the day before USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) 1991 deployment. Photo by AMS3 Rick Rowan. NS027209. http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/027209.jpg

 

1990 & 1991 EAST AND WEST COAST DEPLOYMENTS

CV and CVN Activities after CV-43 Decommissioned

Operation Desert Shield (Iraqi occupation of Kuwait commencing 2 August 1990) and

Operation Desert Storm commencing in the early morning hours of 17 January 1991).

(27 April 1990 to 26 April 1992)

Part 1 – (27 April to 1 August 1990)

Part 2 – (2 August to 11 October 1990)

Part 3 – (12 October to 31 December 1990)

Part 4 – (1 January to 26 March 1991)

Part 5 – (27 March to 16 June 1991)

Part 6 – (17 June 1991 to 27 April 1992)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part 4 – (1 January 1991 to 27 May 1991)

 USS CORAL SEA (CV 43)

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw, A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983)

 

A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy - Operation Evening Light And Eagle Claw -

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0454-5

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-329-15473-5

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-19945-3

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA  Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54596-0

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54790-2

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990) -

 

Book ISBN NO.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-55111-4