Iran Air Force
Iran History & Air Arm
Part I of II
Part II of II
1991 to 1996
Saddam’s Air Force fled to Iran
“Something would happen that defines all logic but testifies to the old adage, I’d rather fight with the devil then give up to my enemies. Even though Iraq’s under Saddam Hussein waged war against Iran, killing countless people during a war from 22 September 1980 to August 1988, Iraqi pilots, Saddam’s Air Force fled to Iran at the onset of the Desert Storm in 1991, while ”reports suggested that more than 350 advanced aircraft were bought or made operational including, Russian Mig-27s, -29s, -31s, Tu-22M3 Backfires, Russian Su-24s, -25s, -27s, Il-76 transports, and French Mirage F-1s. Iran purchased a number of Mig-29s (Mig-29A and Mig-29UB trainers) from what was then the Soviet Union, and acquired a number of others impounded after fleeing Iraq during Desert Storm. Su-24MKs, SU-25Ks, and a number of Il-76 were acquired in the same way.
At least 115 combat aircraft flew to Iran from Iraq during Desert Storm, out of the total of 137-149 aircraft flown to Iran or crashed en route, including military transports and commercial airliners. According to an official Iraqi statement, the combat aircraft included 24 Mirage F-1s, 4 Su-20 Fitters, 40 Su-22 Fitters, 24 Su-24 Fencers, seven Su-25 Frogfoots, nine Mig-23 Floggers, and four Mig-29 Fulcrums. Reports that Saddam Hussein ordered 20 Tu-22 bombers to Iran appeared unfounded. The reported orders in 1992 for Mig-27, -31, Su-22, and Tu-22M aircraft were either in error or failed to come to fruition as those aircraft types did not subsequently appear in Iranian inventory. In this period close to $2 billion was reportedly spent on foreign weapons systems” (Ref. 1127).
“Estimates of the number of Phantoms that are currently operational with the IRIAF vary widely. Somewhere between 70 and 75 Phantoms were believed to be flying in Iran in the 90’s. Surprisingly, a few F-4Ds actually remain in service, but most of the IRIAF Phantoms are the F-4E version, plus a small-number of RF-4Es. IRIAF Phantoms have been subject to local upgrades--the APQ-120 radar of the F-4E and the APQ-109 radar of the F-4D have been significantly improved in range in both the tracking and search modes, and the IRIAF F-4E now even has a limited look-down, shoot-down capability. Most of the IRIAF Phantoms are now operated in an air-to-ground role or maritime strike capacity” (Ref. 1138):
“In 1993 it was reported that Russia was to provide Iran with spare parts, armaments, and operating manuals for the Iraqi jets that flew to Iran during the Gulf War. In 1993 it was also reported that China had bought an unknown number of these Mig-29s from Iran, in exchange for Chinese missile technology and a nuclear power station. The two countries had reportedly reached agreement on the exchange in late 1992, with Iran having delivered some of the Mig-29s by the end of 1992” (Ref. 1127).
Azarakhsh – 1997 to 1999
“Iran was not known to have possessed advanced technology to build fighter planes. However, in April 1997 Iranian Brigadier General Arasteh, a deputy head of the General Staff of the Armed Forces (serving under Major General Ali Shahbazi, the joint chief of staff) claimed that Iran had successfully designed, constructed, and tested its first fighter aircraft, the Azarakhsh.
According to one theory, Iran cobbled together an aircraft by reverse-engineered elements from a number of other aircraft. Evidently a modified F-5, this Iranian design evolved from an examination of the wide variety of fighter aircraft in Iran's inventory, which included both the F-4 and F-5, along with training and experimentation.
Brigadier General Arasteh stated in April 1997 that the "production line of this aircraft will begin work in the near future." Iranian officials announced in September 1997 that Iran had started mass producing its first locally-designed fighter-bomber. In February 1999 commander of the Air Force Brigadier-General Habibollah Baqaei offered a report on the achievements of the air force. He said the Air Force had made great progress since the victory of the Islamic Revolution in the operational, technical, educational and research fields and in manufacturing fighter planes of Azarakhsh and training plane of Tondar as well as radar receivers and is strong enough to defend the air-space of the Islamic Republic of Iran” (Ref. 1128).
“Iran appears to have used the designation "Azarakhsh" (Thunder) to reference at least three and possibly four different aircraft configurations. None of these designs has entered serial production, and the promiscuous use of this name remains something of a puzzle. Iran is under no obligation to disclose all the details of its arms program, and to the contrary, following the old Soviet maxim of "show the best and hide the rest" is evidently engaged in a perception management effort seeking to magnify its apparent military strength by displaying "new" weapons. Some part of the confusion about "Azarakhsh" may simply reflect the confusion of Western observers, but in their bewilderment they have been assisted by the Islamic Republic” (Ref. 1127).
“In 1998 Iraq and Iran had high-level meetings to discuss ending their state of war and other matters, including Iraq's request to have its airplanes returned. Iran denied it had used any of the Iraqi fighter planes. If Iran had kept the Iraqi planes grounded for the entire time, they were probably nonfunctional.
It was also possible that the Iranians might not have been able to start the engines or operate the hydraulics. Other reports suggested that some Su-24s were added to Iran's existing inventory, some Su-20/22s were in Revolutionary Guard service. The Iraqi Su-25s, Mig-23s and Mirage F-1s were thought by some to be not in service, due to age, low capability (Mig-23s) or too few numbers (Su-25). Other reports suggested that Iran had overhauled Iraq's fleet of 24 Mirage F-1EQ fighters and placed them into service.
In June 1999 it was reported that Iran had begun series production of the Azarakhsh” (Ref. 1128).
Azarakhsh – 2000 to 2006
“In March 2000 Jane's Defense weekly reported that Iran's indigenous Azarakhsh (lightning) fighter was a scaled-up U.S. Northrop Grumman F-5f Tiger, incorporating Russian avionics. The two-seater multirole aircraft was previously believed to have been an assembly of an existing Russian or Chinese fighter with modifications. Quoting Iranian sources, Jane's suggested that the resulting derivative was about 10 to 15 per cent larger than an F-5F and was intended primarily for air-to-ground operations.
Iran, it said, had yet to publicly release photos of the fighter, which so far had only been shown at a distance on Iranian television. The weekly believed that only four examples of the Azarakhsh may be in existence and that series production may not start until 2001.
By 2000 reports emerged suggesting that Iran had in fact not incorporated the Mig-23 or Su-20/22 aircraft (at least into their regular Air Force), but had taken the Iraqi Su-24MK, Su-25K, and Mirage F-1EQ aircraft into inventory” (Ref. 1128).
“By mid-2000 four aircraft were said to have been undergoing operational tests and a production of about ten aircraft per year was foreseen to fulfill an order of 30-35 aircraft, which it seems never materialized. As of 2000 series production was expected to start in 2001. As of 2001 there were said to be six in inventory, with a production schedule established for 30 aircraft over the following three years. This did not happen. Some 30 were ordered, but only 6 to 9 were actually built and it is not clear whether they are in service.
According to the Air Force's Gen. Safari, head of the OIC, this establishment had so far produced the Azarakhsh fighter-bomber aircraft, a reverse-engineered version of the F-5E. The second prototype of the Azarakhsh was reported to have flown in mid-February 2001 [contradicting other reports], together with the first prototype of another Iranian jet trainer design called the Tondar. Other OIC accomplishments include the rebuilding of 17 American-built fighter aircraft heavily damaged during the war with Iraq.
Azarakhsh was said to feature shoulder mounted air intakes. It is said to be 10-15 percent larger than the F-5. It was said to incorporate an Iranian-designed radar, but some of the avionics modules were actually of Russian design” (Ref. 1128).
“The Azarakhsh was said to use an upgraded version of N-019 Topaz (N-019ME) radar. In 2001 the Azarakhsh (Lightning) fighter was reported to resembles a 10-20% scaled-up version of the two-seat Northrop F-5F Tiger II with an 8,000kg (17,700lb) maximum take-off weight. It was thought to be powered by two Klimov RD33 engines (the same as the RSK MiG-29 Fulcrum, which is in Iranian service) and equipped with Russian systems and avionics including the Phazotron Topaz radar. This appears to have been a paper airplane and was never seen in public.
”The IRIAF was forced to abandon production plans for the Azarakhsh, as it was an almost exact copy of the F-5E Tiger II. Consequently, Owj Industries designed the Sa'eqeh-80, which first flew on 30 May 2004” (Ref. 1128).
“The stand-off with Iran over its nuclear ambitions was just beginning while I was embedded with Marine All-Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 332 at Al Asad air base in Iraq. More than once the fliers lamented that they’d probably be back in the States by the time the “inevitable” bombing of Iran got underway. One conversation went something like this:
Me: Oh God. We can’t afford a war with Iran
If, God help us, the stand-off does turn violent, U.S. air power will play a critical role. For months pundits have predicted a massive bombing campaign to target Iran’s nuclear facilities, and perhaps even to attempt regime change.
But don’t expect Iran’s air force to roll over like Iraq’s did in 1991 and again in 2003. Unlike the Iraqi air force, the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) appears to be well-armed, well-trained and eager for a fight. Besides the aforementioned F-14 Tomcats, 79 of which the U.S. sold to the country before the Shah was deposed, the air force operates several dozen of each of the following types” (Ref. 1129):
“All told, the IRIAF flies as many as 300 fighters. All are older designs, but have been maintained and, in many cases, upgraded by the indigenous aerospace industry, which has become proficient in reverse-engineering weapons and spare parts — and perhaps even engines. And the IRIAF has aerial tankers too — a force multiplier only the most advanced air forces maintain. Veteran aviation correspondent Tom Cooper and his co-writer Liam Devlin have a fascinating feature in the current issue of Combat Aircraft Magazine, profiling the IRIAF. The authors have interviewed IRIAF defectors and U.S. Navy aircrew that have tangled with Iranian fliers over the Arabian Gulf. The feature cautions against the Western habit of underestimating the IRIAF” (Ref. 1129).
“In December 1971, Bell signed a contract for $708 million USD with the Imperial Iranian government to deliver 287 Model 214 Huey utility helicopters, and 202 improved AH-IJ Cobra gunships. The improved Cobra, known as the International AH-1J, that resulted from this contract featured an updated P&WC T400-WV-402 engine and stronger drive train to support 1,675 horsepower continuous. Recoil damping gear was fitted to the 20mm gun turret, and the gunner was given a stabilized sight and even a stabilized chair. 62 of the International AH-1Js delivered to the Shah's forces were TOW-capable, while the rest were not.
Iranian AH-1Js saw service during the Iran-Iraq War, but because of a lack of spares the fleet was reported grounded by 1990. The Iranian government initiated a program to bring these aircraft back online. The Shabaviz 209-1 is an upgrade program of the AH-1J Cobra attack helicopters acquired during the 1970s by the Shah of Iran.
The Shabaviz 209-1 program is one of many conducted by the state helicopter manufacturer Panha and the state aircraft company HESA, aimed at developing self-sufficiency in industry, primarily military industry, as well as sustaining the existing Iranian fleet. In addition to service life extension, the upgrades have also made the helicopter's systems compatible with the Toophan ATGM, a derivative of the US BGM-71 TOW missile. It is not clear how many AH-1J remained to be upgraded, but aircraft were displayed during exercises in 2006 and 2007” (Ref. 1136).
Azarakhsh – 2007
“On 18 July 2007 Iran's Defence Minister Brigadier-General Mostafa Najjar said the defence ministry and military would hold joint military exercises "within next month." He told reporters on the sidelines of a Majlis session that new weapons would be introduced in the military maneuver. The Defence minister said that Azarakhsh fighter planes would be introduced in the exercise.
In August 2007 the Fars News Agency reported that Iran had successfully performed a test flight of the Azarakhsh fighter. The test flight was performed in Isfahan where a number of high-ranking military officials including the Defense Minister were present, an Iran's Air Force official has said. Defense Minister Mostafa Mohammad Najjar had earlier announced that Azarakhsh would be used in a forthcoming wargames.
Azarakhsh was said to have strengthened and reinforced composite wings, providing capability to carry 1,000 kg guided bombs, a laser designator and a new, more advanced radar with some Russian parts.
Additional improvements are in the possibility to carry locally developed new air-to-ground (Zulfiqar) and Shabaz-1/2 unguided, large caliber rockets in addition to the normal Sidewinders and Chinese PL-5 (7?) air-to-air missiles and bombs. The General Electric J-85 engines were updated with higher thrust.
“On 5 August 2007 Lieutenant-General Kamal al-Barzanji, Iraq's air force commander, said he hoped Iran would return some of the Iraqi warplanes that fled to Iran ahead of the Gulf War in 1991. He conceded that many of them were probably beyond repair” ” (Ref. 1127).
“Iran had successfully tested its new Azarakhsh (Thunder) fighter, Defense Minister Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar said on 6 August 2007. The Azarakhsh was said to be the fifth generation of Iranian aircraft and it was developed in Isfahan by the Iranian army, Defense Ministry, and aircraft-manufacturing company HESA. Iran is also working on a second type of Azarakhsh aircraft called the Saqeh (Lightning).
On 6 August 2007 Iran showed off for the first time a new fighter jet said to be modeled on the American F-5 but built using domestic technology, state media reported. The "Azarakhsh" (Lightning) jet - one of the first to be home-produced by Iran - made a successful flight in the central city of Isfahan in a ceremony attended by Defence Minister Mostafa Mohammad Najjar and other officials” (Ref. 1128).
“The fly-by in Isfahan appeared to have been the first time the Azarakhsh jet had been shown in public. "The success of this domestically developed fighter plane is another example of the technological achievements of our country," said Isfahan governor Morteza Bakhtiari, according to the state-run IRNA news agency.
"At a time when the United States is selling its arms to its allies in the region, our country's specialists are taking big strides every day towards self-sufficiency in defense," he added. The development of the plane was first announced in September last year, when military officials said that it was "comparable" to the US F-5 fighter jet. Iran had also developed another homemade war plane named "Saegheh" (Thunder) which it has described as similar to the American F-18 fighter jet.
The aircraft had been manufactured in cooperation with experts from the Army, Defense Ministry and HESA aircraft manufacturing industries in the central province of Isfahan, the minister told reporters. "The Azarakhsh fighter plan is now at the stage of industrial production and its mass production will start in the future," said the minister. He added that the fighter's successful test would lead to plans for "manufacturing of the fifth generation of Iranian aircraft." Army and Defense Ministry experts were working on the second type of Azarakhsh fighters called Saeqeh (alternately translated as Thunderbolt or Lightning), which would be also tested in the near future, Mohammad-Najjar added.
The Azarakhsh prototype seen in 2007 featured a double tail, new afterburners and bigger air inlet indicating exchange of engines. The Azarakhsh air inlets were rectangular, as in the F-4 Phanton. The Azarakhsh also had an modification in the area of the wing next the air inlet.
On 23 September 2007 President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad inspected three models of jet fighters -- Saeqeh, Azarakhsh and Tazarv -- Iran Air Force unveiled on the anniversary of the Iraqi invasion of Iran in 1980. He attended the Air Force Base 1 in Southern Tehran to appreciate the technical teams involved in manufacturing the Iranian made jet fighters. Saeqeh and Azarakhsh jet fighters manufactured jointly by the Ministry of Defense and Logistics of the Armed Forces and the Air Force of the Army of the Islamic Republic of Iran are for military missions and Tazarv (pheasant) is for training. President Ahmadinejad expressed pleasure with success of Iranian technicians in manufacturing the planes” (Ref. 1128).
Azarakhsh – 2008
“Two single and 1 double-seater Azarakhsh (of possibly 6 built by 2001) participated to the National Army Day fly-past at Tehran on 17 April 2008” (Ref. 1128).
“The "Azarakhsh" serial final version seen in 2008 had finer lines, a ram air inlet aft of the wing [common to all F-5s but in evidence on this variant] and leading edge extension (LEX) "teeth" in the wings. The most visible feature is that the basic layout of the plane has been changed from a low wing aircraft with air inlets above the wing to a mid-wing aircraft with inlets below the wings. The wings were probably set higher to allow wider choice of munitions.
The high performance of modern fighters such as the F/A-18 in air combat maneuvers is due in large part to its aerodynamic shape, and in particular, to the effect of the sharp, highly- sweptback leading edge extension (LEX) that extends forward from each wing root. At angles of attack typical in air combat maneuvers, each LEX generates a large vortex above the aircraft. The lifting forces due to the LEX vortices give the aircraft its maneuvering capability.
The maneuverability does not come without penalty, however. The centerline core of the LEX vortex can undergo the phenomenon of vortex bursting or vortex breakdown. This occurs when smooth, steady airflow along the vortex core suddenly breaks down and becomes disturbed and unsteady. The core also expands considerably in diameter. Under air combat maneuvering conditions the unsteady flow downstream of the vortex burst position impacts on the fins and tail plane of the aircraft, causing high dynamic loads on these surfaces. Severe structural vibration results, with consequent detrimental effects on the fatigue life of the aircraft structure.
Survivability and structural requirements in advanced aircraft require cooling and thermal management of aircraft and propulsion structures. Additionally, some applications of aircraft technology, particularly those applications on supersonic aircraft, require sources of cooled, high pressure air.
Conventional methods for propulsion system cooling in current aircraft engines typically employ either engine fuel, or air from one of the various sources in the propulsion system as a coolant. Among the traditional sources of cooling air are ram air from the inlet. A characteristic of fixed area inlet configurations is that the ducted air speed generally increases with vehicle speed and higher speeds generally improve the rate of convective heat transfer from the heat generating component to the ducted air. Low ducted air temperatures also improve the rate of heat transfer” (Ref. 1128).
An Iranian F-14A Tomcat in a 2008 exhibition, Tehran
2009 to 2012
“U.S. Centcom commander Gen. David Petraeus said last week that the United Arab Emirates, a key U.S. ally in the Persian Gulf, has the capability to overpower Iran's Air Force.
"The Emirati Air Force itself could take out the entire Iranian Air Force, I believe, given that it's got ... somewhere around 70 Block 60 F-16 fighters, which are better than the U.S. F-16 fighters," Petraeus said during remarks at a recent conference put on in Bahrain by the International Institute for Strategic Studies.
In a related development, the new nuclear agreement between the U.S. and the UAE entered into force today, with the signing ceremony presided over by Under Secretary of State for Arms Control Ellen Tauscher and UAE Ambassador Yousef Al Otaiba.
"In today's world, we must find ways to meet the demand for clean energy and to recognize the right that all nations have to pursue the peaceful use of nuclear power. But we need to achieve this balance without increasing the risk of the proliferation of nuclear weapons and material," Tauscher said.
She praised the UAE for agreeing to import nuclear fuel, rather than producing it through reprocessing or enrichment. Tauscher also praised the UAE as a partner in the drive to prevent Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapon.
The agreement, often referred to as the 123 agreement, provides for transfers of nuclear technology and know how to the UAE in exchange for its commitment to nonproliferation standards. (Meanwhile there are still concerns that members of the ruling family of Ras Al Khaimah in the UAE are actually facilitating illicit weapons transfers to Iran.)
An Iranian C-130 Hercules in 2010
Iranian Air Strength
A Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29UB of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force in 2011.
Iran Air Force ready to counter threats
IRAF tested its defense capabilities in the ten-day 'Fadaeeyan-e Harim-e Vellayat III', massive air drills in Iran's northwestern regions in September, 2011.
“Top Iranian military commander Brigadier General Abdolrahim Mousavi says Iran’s Army Air Force (IRAF) is fully prepared to counter any potential threats against the country.
“[Iran’s] Army Air Force is ready to identify any [kind of] aggression and counter them,” the deputy Chief of Staff of Iran’s Army said on Saturday” (Ref. 1108).
“The Iranian commander said during recent years the IRAF has identified and landed unknown aircrafts which entered Iran’s airspace. On December 4, 2011, the Iranian military's electronic warfare unit announced that Iran had downed with minimal damage the US RQ-170 Sentinel stealth reconnaissance aircraft, while it was in violation of the Iranian airspace.
“As is the case with most aspects of Iranian military forces, estimates differ by source. The IISS estimates the air force has 18 main combat squadrons. These include nine fighter ground-attack squadrons, with 4/55-65 US-supplied F-4D/E and 4/55-65 F- 5E/FII, and 1/27-30 Soviet-supplied Su-24. Iran had 7 Su-25K and 24 Mirage F-1 Iraqi aircraft it seized during the Gulf War, and some may be operational. Some reports indicate that Iran has ordered an unknown number of TU-22M-3 ‘Backfire C’ long-range strategic bombers from either Russia or the Ukraine Discussions do seem to have taken place, but no deliveries or purchases can be confirmed.
Iran has claimed that it is modernizing its F-14s by equipping them with I-Hawk missiles adapted to the air-to-air role, but it is far from clear that this is the case or that such adaptations can have more than limited effectiveness” (Ref. 1137).
“Russian firms and the Iranian government tried to reach an agreement over license production of the MiG-29, but repeated attempts have failed. Likely due to the difficulty the regime has had in procuring new aircraft, Iran has been developing three new attack aircraft.
The indigenous design and specifics of one of the fighters in development, the Shafagh, were unveiled at the Iran Air show in 2002. Engineers hope to have a prototype by 2008, though it is unclear what the production numbers will be and what the timetable for deployment may be. Little is known about the other two fighters in development, the Saeghe and the Azarakhsh, other than they have been reportedly derived from the F-5.xl Iran has moderate airlift capabilities for a regional power.
The Iranian air force’s air transport assets included 3 B-707 and 1 B-747 tanker transports, and five transport squadrons with 4 B-747Fs, 1 B-727, 18C-130E/Hs, 3 Commander 690s, 10 F-27s, 1 Falcon 20A, and 2 Jetstars. Iran will have 14 Xian Y-7 transports by 2006.xli Its helicopter strength includes 2 AB-206As, 27-30 Bell 214Cs, and 2 CH-47, 30 Mi-17 and Iranian-made Shabaviz 206-1 and 2-75 transport helicopters.
Cordesman: Iran’s Developing Military Capabilities 12/8/04 27 The IRGC also has some air elements. It is not clear what combat formations exist within the IRGC, but the IRGC may operate Iran’s 10 Embraer EMB 312 Tucano. It seems to operate many of Iran’s 45 PC-7 trainers, as well as some Pakistani-made trainers at a training school near Mushhak, but this school may be run by the regular air force. It has also claimed to manufacture gliders for use in unconventional” (Ref. 1137).
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF)
Iran (Surfinbird) - April 18, 2010 07:16 PM (GMT)
Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Logistics
“The IRIAF markings are only slightly different to those used by the IIAF.
The main difference is addition of the word "Allah" (meaning "God" in Arabic), in red, on the white field of the fin flash, and the text "Allah hu Akbar" (translated to "God is greater"), in white, on the bottom of the green, and the top of the red field, though the application of such varies with some aircraft still carrying the simplified tricolor on the tail, it is unknown if this is due to simply saving time and effort, or if these are left Overs from the 1970s.
The roundel remains the same as used before.
The word "Allah" is applied also on a number of F-5 Tiger IIs on the top of the fin, and undersides of the port (left) wing of IRIAF F-14 Tomcats.
RC-130, B707 Elint Fighter F-14A, Mig-29A/UB, Mirage F1, F-7M Helicopter CH-47, AB-206, AB-214, AS-61 Patrol P-3F Reconnaissance RF-4E Trainer F-5A/B/Simorgh, PC-7, F33C, Fajr-3, FT-7 Transport C-130, IL-76, F27, B 747, B 707, Falcon 20, Falcon 50, JetStar, Y-12, PC-6, Socata TB.
Missiles and Rockets
Islamic Iranian Armed Forces - Artesh, Non-IRGC Forces - QUOTE
Order of Battle
Southern Area Command
AA-10 (Alamo), AA-8, 10, AA-11 (Archer AAM), AA-12
AIM-54A Phoenix (280), AIM-9L Sidewinder (1,270), AIM-7 Sparrow (430), PL-2 (540), PL-7 (360)
AGM-65 Maverick, AS 10, 11 14, AS-12, C-801K, Fajr e-Darya (C-701), FL-10, Towsan, Toophan GBU-67/9A, AGM-379/20 and Aaduga Kh-55: 12, AA-11 (Archer AAM), AA-12. http://z9.invisionfree.com/21c/ar/t7182.htm
Bandar Abbas, Birjand, Bushehr, Zahedan, Tehran (Ghale Morghi), Isfahan, Kerman, Kharg Island, Mehrabad, Mashhad, Qeshm, Shiraz, Tabriz, Tehran. http://xairforces.com/airforces.asp?id=50
Iran Air Force
Iran History & Air Arm
Part I of II
Part II of II
A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy - Operation Evening Light And Eagle Claw -
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Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)
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